How to Fix “Typeerror: A Bytes-Like Object Is Required, Not ‘Str’” In Python?


The "TypeError: a bytes-like object is required, not 'str'" error occurs in Python when you try to pass a string object where bytes are expected. Python 3.x requires bytes-like objects to be passed to I/O operations and socket connections, whereas Python 2.x allows strings to be passed as well.

To fix this error, you can convert your string to a byte-like object using the encode() method.

For example:

text = "Hello World"
data = text.encode()

Alternatively, you can use the b prefix to denote a byte string literal.

data = b"Hello World"

If you're working with files, you can open them in binary mode by adding the 'b' character to the file mode.

with open('filename.txt', 'rb') as file:
    data =

In summary, the best way to fix this error is to use a bytes-like object where required. You can convert your string to bytes using the encode() method, use the b prefix to denote a byte string literal, or open your files in binary mode.

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